FCJ-099 The Renewable Tradition (Extended Play Remix)

Mark Amerika
Professor of Art and Art History, University of Colorado

Quoting from his own short story ‘Death of the Novel’

Obviously there’s no progress in art. Progress toward what? The avant-garde is a convenient propaganda device, but when it wins the war everything is avant-garde, which leaves us just about where we were before. The only thing that’s sure is that we move, and as we move we leave things behind–the way we felt yesterday, the way we talked about it. Form is your footprints in the sand when you look back. (Sukenick, 1981: 35)

The quote comes from ‘Death of the Novel’

a fictional short story by Ronald Sukenick

to introduce his artist essay ‘The New Tradition’

which is collected in the groundbreaking

anthology of artist poetics entitled Surfiction

The New Tradition (Sukenick used to tell me)

is the one we’re always on the cusp of inventing

by strategically moving beyond literature per se

For those who may not have encountered

this kind of literary thinking before

this is what the rivals of traditional literature do:

they take on traditional literature so as to destroy it

and in the process remixologically inhabit

its historical body while pushing tender buttons

all along the way (remixology is a way of

intervening or hacking into the transmission of

traditional media discourse and empowers artists

to renew all discourse)

so that they can then revitalize its power

as a renewable form of energy in nature

They do this by breaking down its material components

into a potentially rich heap of source material

that they can then re-embody in whatever

formal experiment feels natural to them

at any given time in history

Think of it as compostproduction

where the leftovers of literature past

get reconfigured into innovative forms of art

meant to breathe life into an always on the verge

(of dying)

creative life force struggling for survival

(Sukenick’s last collection of short stories

was entitled Doggy Bag [1994])

The Remixologist’s mantra?

Source Material Everywhere

Until recently the Narrative Form

Most Likely To Succeed in the Creative Destruction of Literature

was unquestionably The Novel

in fact

it’s been this way for centuries

but are things about to radically change and

what are the indications that these changes

are already well underway?

Sometimes we literary-minded remixologists

find ourselves innovating the mediumistic qualities of

the form we are working in without even necessarily

thinking about it (this happened to me when I was writing

my first novel — The Kafka Chronicles — I was completely

unaware of a so-called ‘New Tradition’ and was just writing

the only way I knew how to which was to sync my unconscious

with the narrative tracing of a trance ritual in transfigured time

What manifested itself out of this trance ritual

was something that resembled a ‘novel’

but that was itself a kind of anti-novel

i.e. a work of art contained in book form

that used narrative and poetry and typography

not to mention visible language and sound art

to creatively de[con]struct the novel form it was inhabiting)

Other times we who create innovative works of remix art

are fully self-conscious of the rival lineage we spring forth from

and knowingly take on other remixological styles just to see

what happens when we move inside other writers’ bodies (of work)

This is when remixologically inhabiting

the spirit of another writer’s stylistic tendencies

or at least the subconsciously imagined writerly gestures

that illuminate their live spontaneous performance

feels more like an embodied praxis

An embodied praxis where the vocal intonations of

the artist are used as source material to discover

new aesthetic facts

And what is a writer anyway?

The lyrical conceptual poetic narrative movements

come in wildly assorted forms

everything from dance to cinema to performance art

to the scribbling of pen or pencil on paper

But for now let’s stick with literature

For instance I remember a passage from Sukenick’s

Down and In: Life in the Underground

where he self-consciously (and remixologically) inhabits

the style of Norman Mailer circa Armies of the Night (1968)

It dawned on Sukenick only much later when he read Mailer’s book Armies of the Night, about the 1967 Justice Department and Pentagon demonstrations, that Mailer, by his own third-person account of himself, is no mere mimic but is a multiphrenic with a handy miscellany of personalities. Mimicry by itself was an impulse that Sukenick could well understand and sometimes justifiably indulge, as here that of the book in question, since such imitation, properly executed, brings along with it an intuitive comprehension of the ideas, attitudes, and modes of feeling that produced the style of expression at hand. (Sukenick, 1987: 236)

We can also see this kind of well executed stylistic mimicry

being expressed in Amerika’s second novel Sexual Blood

which was nothing if not a remixological inhabitation of

the style Count Lautréamont (aka Isadore Ducasse)

initiated with his acerbic Songs of Maldoror

where Amerika knowingly and even greedily

pla(y)giarizes Lautréamont’s own pla(y)giaristic style as source material

Why did he find it necessary to pla(y)giarize

Lautréamont’s style as source material?

You’ll have to ask Amerika that question

I (on the other hand) am now recalling

how my late colleague Kathy Acker

once told me that she took on the body-language of

Hawthorne Faulkner Rimbaud and Verlaine

to name just a few

as a way to embody their spiritual unconscious

thus becoming the literary version of

this remixological figure I am proposing

i.e. the artist-as-postproduction-medium

Postproduction mediums working with new media technologies

are developing (multiple/hybridized/integrated)

daily practices as an alternative approach

to the regimentation of consumer bureaucracies

(perhaps we could call it an epic struggle

one the creative or hacker classes

continually commiserate over as a kind of

informal unionization that collectively

accumulates into some kind of bargaining power

i.e. the radical spirit of ‘always becoming’

a postproduction medium?

How do artists leverage this instinctive creative process?)

PP mediums play out their performances-to-be

on whatever compositional playing fields

they happen to be (re)cycling through when

caught in the heat of postproduction

(think of it as developing an economy of motion

targeted at turning the body into a renewable energy source)

To paraphrase Vito Acconci

that playing field would be

the ground of the moment

not one they would have to dig themselves

out of continuously but one that they would

act on as part of their constructed persona(s)

moving through the networked space of flows

The list of ‘co-‘ postproductions by artists and writers

creating with the renewable tradition is long

The novelist and screenwriter Terry Southern

took this writing with or ‘co-‘ postproduction process

to its stylistic extreme when as a young man

he began literally writing out by hand

the works of Edgar Allen Poe

The Yes Men remixologically inhabited

the World Trade Organization website

and birthed the site which then fed

into many remixological performance art spectacles

at major international economic summits

that were then remixed yet again into

the The Yes Men movie where you can see their collaborative

‘cut and paste as you go’ methodology hybridize

net art performance / fashion design / art / fiction / hactivism

For the work Society of the Spectacle (A Digital Remix)

the art-collective I belong to (DJRABBI.COM)

took Guy Debord’s original scrambling of propaganda noise

from the days of May ’68 and détourned the détourner

generating random video imagery by cutting and pasting

key phrases from his own ‘postproduced’ essay

as search terms in Google Image Searches

while also mashing up an alternative détourntablism

with some of the audio productions he participated in

even overwriting the English subtitles in his SOS film

as a way of translating his monotonous Marxist voiceover

into a more self-contradictory new media manifesto

that highlights ‘the flickering other we love to hate’

If an embodied digital flux persona performing

their daily practice as an artist-medium

becomes a kind of compositional instrument

acting on whatever ground is available

then we may also view them as a kind of

remixological body electric

affectively mixing their source material

body-image to body-image

via an oscillating string of excitation modes

accelerating on the edge of a ‘forever composition’

that is then experienced by the artist-medium

as the ongoing becomingness of postproduction

This ongoing becomingness of postproduction

catapults the artist-medium further into the Infinite

that unidentifiable space of mind where

the unconscious projections of near future events

always keep us on the cusp of what it is

we are in the process of creating while experiencing

this all-over-sense of ‘being in perpetual postproduction’

even as our ‘novel togetherness’ smudges together

with what we used to think of as simply being

in production…

As an ‘always live’ networked performance artist

who willingly constructs digital flux identities

for my role-playing personas to circulate in

I uncontrollably / unconsciously create a poetics

that highlights what David Antin refers to as

the ‘cargo of memories and attendant dreams’

as prime source material to remix into my narrative trajectory

But as I conduct these on-the-fly remixes

using my various portable / digital apparatuses

to capture the data points of my Source Material Everywhere

while affectively assembling the flickering images

that swarm my every move

it becomes clear that there is no choice in the matter

the choice has already been made by my biological condition

I have become and am always becoming a postproduction medium

Compostproducing the present

into an ongoing sequence of intense aesthetic experiences

that simultaneously historicizes my performance

as a ‘durational achievement’ playing out its creative potential

is what it means to be avant-garde

(to sample the title of one of Antin’s talking books)

in that it never feels as though I am emptying myself

into the blank canvas of the global future

as much as it feels like I am compostproducing

a Totally Other digital art persona

who is both ahead of his time and of his time

but also fully engaged with intuitively selected bits of data

sampled from the past and utilized as source material

in the postproduction processes of the ‘always live’ remixologist

Antin has little use for any detailed account of

a so-called tradition even an avant-garde tradition

or anti-tradition tradition:

[T]he tradition will resolve itself in the present […] and all you have to do is find it / but if you don’t it will find you. (Antin, 1993: 56)

But then the question emerges

‘Whose avant-garde tradition?’

The renewable tradition is part of

an open source lifestyle practice

and is available to all

As Burroughs writes:

Cut-ups are for everyone. Anybody can make cut ups. It is experimental in the sense of being something to do. Right here write now. (Burroughs and Gysin, 1978: 31)

Acker would embody the spirit precursors of

Hawthorne Faulkner Rimbaud and Verlaine

as part of her intense investigation into

writing as an extreme force of (h)activism

In an essay she titles ‘Critical Languages’

where she is transcribing her presentation

on ‘[t]he nature of art in a degenerating polis

inimical to all but its own centralized power’

Acker addresses a group of writers whose

work centres on contemporary art criticism

She meets them head on by saying:

I want to talk about the body and languages of the body. Which art criticism has denied. And about what art criticism could come out of the languages of the body. (Acker, 1997: 89)

At which point she starts riffing on a list of

possible body languages that she would prescribe:

1. The languages of flux. Of uncertainty in which the ‘I’ (eye) constantly changes. For the self is ‘an indefinite series of identities and transformations.’ (Acker, 1997: 91)

She also lists the languages of wonder

materiality and play – but:

8. Above all: the languages of intensity. Since the body’s, our, end isn’t transcendence but excrement, the life of the body exists as pure intensity. The sexual and emotive languages.

9. The only religions are scatology and intensity.

10. Language that forgets itself. For if we knew that chance governs us and this world, that would be absolute knowledge. (91-92)

‘Language that forgets itself’

resonates with Nam June Paik’s form of ecstasy

where ‘a mystic forgets himself’

while unconsciously triggering

body languages out of principled uncertainty

Paik’s notes on ‘Experimental Television’

were written around the same time of

his first-ever 1963 video art exhibition in Wuppertal

an exhibition entitled ‘Exhibition of Music – Electronic Television’

and these handwritten notes were encased

in a long glass box as part of a re-installed version of

this legendary exhibition in Bremen, Germany in 2005

These notes feature an excerpt that truly connects

with my recent discoveries in the emerging fields of

hyperimprovisational new media art & performance

where the artist as postproduction medium

taps into the unconscious flow detonated by the trigger-inference

before conscious thought steps in and derails

ones signifying momentum . . .

In ‘Experimental Television’ Paik refers

to the word ‘ecstasy’ (which is held up

at the top of the page by clawing quotes)

by writing immediately below it

to go out of oneself…

and then continues with the following

bullet-pointed words and phrases:

* completely filled time

* the presence of eternal presence

* unconscious, or super-conscious

* some mystic forgets himself (goes out of oneself)

* abnormal

* the world stops for three minutes!

where the trick for stopping the world

(and this is the exact same phrase used

in Carlos Castenada’s Journey to Ixtlan

where the trickster-shaman Don Juan advises

his young disciple on how to trip/drift through life)

is to always stay a half a second ahead of the game


of all of the source material you have at your disposal

Experiencing these transformations outside of time

is the only way to achieve absolute knowledge

as an intensely rendered aesthetic fact

In this regard I can use my own inhabitations

as an example of transforming remix practice

into unconscious / experiential knowledge

Much of what I write when composing my fictions

including the ‘Distributed Fictions’ planted inside META/DATA

inhabits the early developments of Laurence Sterne

(and in particular his work Tristram Shandy)

as well as the aforementioned Lautréamont

(all of what little he wrote)

For those who follow such things

this will make perfect sense

since one of these writers

is the Godfather of digressionary

[hyper-textual] fiction (Sterne)

and the other is the Prince of Pla(y)giarism (Lautréamont)

a pseudo-autobiographical fiction style / remixologically inhabiting the body language / an ancient form of ‘realtime’ manipulation

Sukenick himself would be quick to point out

Henry Miller as the Godfather of

a pseudo-autobiographical fictional style

that leads the disappearing writer into

acts of creative composition that samples from

the data of unconsciously generated experience

accumulated in the practice of everyday life

and that by manipulating these sampled bits of data

into pseudo-autobiographical fiction

one is capable of producing new forms of knowledge

that (and this is me talking now)

the reader then attempts to mirror

by tracing the movement of the body language

embedded in the textual apparatus

we are perpetually postproducing when reading

For example reading Henry Miller novels

while moving through the streets of New York City

as a foot messenger in the 1980s

was a way for me to learn

how to embody my own pseudo-autobiography

as source material for future fictional remixes

In an email dialogue I had with Sukenick

a few years before he passed away in 2004

he said that ‘Miller was the one who woke me up

to the fact that words on the page can be

a vital extension of the life of the writer

and therefore of the life of the reader.’

The pseudo-autobiographical experience of

remixologically inhabiting the body language

as well as the spiritual unconscious of those

who we eagerly interact with via their work

is part of a larger attempt to correspond

with the rich resources of our precursors

in acts of performative postproduction

To develop a mutually beneficial co-responsibility

with those in the rival tradition who came before us

is to simultaneously pay homage to while expand out of

the discoveries they had already made themselves

via remixologically inhabiting their prior sources

If Borges is correct in suggesting that we all

quite literally create our own precursors (Borges, 1964: 199-201)

by embodying their source material without

either their or our knowledge while creating

then these remixes could be considered

part of a larger biological imperative

providing sustenance for the future viability of the species

A primary issue Sukenick and I always traded notes on

was how can the vitality of writing as an art form

survive in electronic/networked environments?

or when things got really dark

Is human culture preformatted

to kill literature as such and

what then will it mean to be

what we now still call a literary artist?

We were not overly concerned about

saving literature for literature’s sake

The important thing is to annihilate

the important thing (wrote Sukenick

in his ongoing work The Endless Short Story)

and we knew via our experiences

as writers practicing how to become postproduction mediums

that just saving our own asses by expanding

the concept of writing so that it too could infiltrate

and have influence on the emerging digital culture

was and still is our only way O U T

That is to say as interdisciplinary media artists

who formally experimented with language

we were going to write the only way we knew how

i.e. through a constant oscillation

between improvisation and revision

digression and pla(y)giarism (hyperimprovisational remixology)

and if literature wanted to come along for the ride

then (conjuring the spirit of Mailer circa Armies of the Night)

The Novelists would not stop it from doing so

The bottom line for type A metamediums

addicted to the rush of becoming

just-in-time skywriters operating on autopilot

while navigating the restless skies

was that as long as we were left to our incandescence /

our satori / our hallucinatory language adventures

then literature was always welcome to join us at its own risk

As much as we would be happy to kill it on our own terms

(after all this was not a job for Corporate America and its Cable News /

Hollywood Sensationalism / Fakebook Culture —

No, killing literature was a job for The Novelists!)

we must accept the fact that it (Literature)

has earned our respect just for having survived this long

and like your rich old man with shiny new tooth implants

champing at the bit of careening post-careerism

if it is hungry for more historical relevance

then so be it

We will even acknowledge its tough guy stubbornness

till the day it dies (just ask Mailer, R.I.P.)

Still there are many ways of out-surviving literature per se

while expanding the power of writing to hack

into the abyss and transform the world

and this will always be the mission of

the zealous participants in the rival tradition

Taking on the stylistic writing gestures of

other artists and then remixologically inhabiting them

in some ancient form of ‘realtime’ manipulation

requires practice (and here I cannot help but think of

some musicians and athletes who always seem

to find that necessary physical and psychical balance

while engaged in their well-choreographed

scenes of experiential play

perhaps this ancient form of ‘realtime’ manipulation

is an unconscious process of intuitively making

the right move at just the right time

as when the famous American quarterback

Joe Montana asked to describe his ‘play’ on the field

once said ‘I am an unconscious while playing’

and is not necessarily something one learns

but anticipates as part of their active methodology

for example when the jazz musician Ornette Coleman

asked to elaborate on how one can learn to play like him

he matter-of-factly states

‘I didn’t know you had to learn to play;

I thought you had to play to play’)

Moving in and out of these ghost tendencies that

mark the outlines of a body language once performed

by another artist of the past also necessitates

a certain amount of lived experience —

experience at remixologically inhabiting

the spiritual unconscious of another body language

whose code has been transmitted to our own

neural network for postproduction processing

Is this not how we become postproduction mediums?

The bottom line is that

to remix Miles Davis

sometimes it takes a long time

to become a postproduction medium

(Davis once said ‘Sometimes it takes a long time

to play like yourself.’)

I think of it as an enduring embodied praxis

i.e. where the gesture of writing embedded in muscle memory

enables the postproduction artist to intuitively

mirror the neuron activity of the ones who came before

something that feels like a deep interiorization of

someone else’s creative rhythm mediumistically

syncing with whatever filters one turns on

at any given time during the remix performance

What I learned from Sukenick and Acker

for example

came both from being with them in person

as well as reading them from a distance

Reading their body language and moving through their books with them

kept me on my game as did engaging with them in person

or via email dialogue so that we fed off each other

kicking up more spurs of intersubjective codework

to illuminate our collaborative sets with

‘You’re on fire,’ Acker told me in the first email

I ever received from her (she was right – and knew it)

We may have been individuals in pursuit of

our own form of writerly nirvana

but collectively we were also always in pursuit of

‘that final “race to the wire of time”‘

(to quote LeRoi Jones writing about Kerouac’s

spontaneous bop prose style)’[1]

For now

I’m still in the race

but these artists were the ones who taught me

how to haunt the texts that came before me

even as these same texts haunted me back

Think of it as literary hauntology

i.e. the conjuring of ghost-note tendencies

but with a twist: by mediumistically transcoding

the resonant styles inherited from

the Rival Tradition in Literature

contemporary remixologists simultaneously

carry on the next phase of a more digitally-inclined

Renewable Tradition

(a ‘next phase’ that opens itself up to

the hacking priorities of other remixologists

who are positioning themselves to carry on this same tradition)

By replacing the ‘new tradition’ in writing

with a formidable ‘renewable tradition’ in

electronic remixology or what Gregory Ulmer calls “electracy”

(the meeting of electricity and literacy) (Ulmer, 2005: xxiii)

we open up future channels of distribution

that are fueled by ‘renewable energy sources’

that come directly from the artist-mediums themselves

and can begin imagining how the future forms of

fiction(al) performance might emerge as ‘hybrid vehicles’

to transport our digital personas in

(and in this regard let’s not forget that ‘Prius’

means before or first and so plays right in to

our avant-garde reckoning with innovation

as it applies to all things clever and entrepreneurial

but that also emerge out of necessity

as part of a pragmatic survival strategy

in the degrading environment that is gasping

for whatever oxygen there may be out there)

If there were an Academy Award for

Best Remix Persona in A Divination Role

one would have to consider Burroughs

for The Lifetime Achievement award

His entire scramble-the-code methodology

was grounded in derailing the predetermined self

Burroughs demonstrates to us how he plays

the pre-Internet remixologist circa 1960:

[…] I took a short passage of my recorded voice and cut it into intervals of one twenty-fourth of a second on movie tape — (movie tape is larger and easier to splice) — and rearranged the order of the 24th second intervals of recorded speech. The original words are quite unintelligible but new words emerge. The voice is still there and you can immediately recognize the speaker. Also the tone of voice remains. If the tone is friendly, hostile, sexual, poetic, sarcastic, lifeless, despairing, this will be apparent in the altered sequence. (Burroughs and Odier: 1974: 178)

American Pragmatism at its best

The DJ scratches The VJ scrubs

the net artist / computer programmer hacks

and the literary provocateur Burroughs scrambles

Burroughs: ‘Pick a card, any card.’

Professor VJ: ‘I’ll take mine scrambled.’

Burroughs then charts out an imaginary large festival of

scramblers working with A/V devices who would first of all

hack into entertainment products since ‘in fact entertainment

is the most promising field for cut-up techniques.

Imagine a pop festival like Phun City…’ (Burroughs and Odier, 1974: 184)

and before you know it

he’s drawing up a blueprint for a live A/V Hackfest

so as to ‘lay down a grid of sound over the whole festival.’ (Burroughs and Odier, 1974: 182)

The jam session would not be with a list of performers

on stage playing before the crowd

In Burroughs’ festival the hacker audience

would produce the event itself and

it would take place ad hoc

in this massive field of play (literally ‘car park,

a camping area, a rock auditorium, a village with booths

and cinema, a large wooded area.’) (Burroughs and Odier, 1974:184)

Everyone would be equipped with tape players /

video recorders / prepared and unprepared

source material / projection screens etc.

Fast-forward to 2009 and Burroughs’ Phun City Project

is already happening in Virtual Reality Land

via cut and paste / mash-up culture

yet under the guise of freeform remixology

where an efflorescence of postproduction artworks that

are now being released over the networks

by the digital personas who create them

blends with the fusion of horizons

a networked art scene depends on

for its ongoing cultural sustenance

(‘for such a fusion of horizons to occur,’

writes the late intermedia artist Dick Higgins,

‘the reader or listener must have some consciousness of

sher [sic] own horizons in order to have something to blend with…’)

And that brings us back to scratch one —

that is: How does a contemporary remixologist

create a sense of measure that stylistically

blends with the fusion of horizons?

How would a contemporary remixologist

divining their own just-in-time context

for the compositional playing field of the moment

jump-start a renewable tradition made out of all of

the ‘renewable energy sources’ (i.e. artist-mediums)

signaling from the past / present / future?

That is to say

(borrowing lingo from the jazz scene) –

how do you account for ones remixological chops?

One way to measure remix chops

might be via generational influence

i.e. intensity of influence across generations

Renewable energy sources back to the future?

It’s cosmic

Cosmic inflation snapping back to haunt us

in a way that gets our creative attention

Professor VJ [me-myself-an-Eye]

feels compelled to ask

in a momentary fit of multiphrenic distortion:

‘How can artist-researchers developing

new practice-based initiatives in remixology

turn the immediate future into a renewable source of

“energy” that fuels their unconscious readiness potential?’

Success in this area of practice-based research could lead

to the artist becoming a valuable postproduction medium

running (as Henri Michaux suggests)

… at full speed, in all directions, into the memory, into the future, into the data of the present, to grasp the unexpected, the luminous, stupefying, connections. (Michaux and Ball, 1997: 212)

In the heat of developing

an applied remixology

these luminous connections are intersubjective

part of a spontaneous jam session

with the Source Material Everywhere

indicating the rise of digital socialism

as collectively generated autofiction

or creatively dispersed bio-formalism

It is out of this collectively generated

and always-in-the-making autofiction

that artist-mediums contribute to the unfolding of

an ongoing co-poietic process of mutual becomingness

one that feeds off of the renewable energy sources

their remixological practices turn to for future sustenance

so that they can then generate novel forms of life

that are at once of their time and ahead of their time

A tradition worth renewing if ever there was one.

Author’s Biography

Mark Amerika is a profesor of digital art at the University of Colorado in Boulder where he is developing the TECHNE practice-based research initiative.


[1] LeRoi Jones, who changed his name to Amiri Baraka, published his ‘Letter to the Evergreen Review about Kerouac’s Spontaneous Prose’ in 1961. ‘The actual experience of this “race” is experienced only by the writer,’ writes Baraka, ‘whose entire psyche is involved and from whence the work is extracted. And no matter how much we “identify” or are extended by the work, it remains always a work and not ourselves. […] only the writer is “relaxed and said” [Kerouac]; the reader is finished, stopped, but his mind still lingers, sometimes frantically, between the essential and the projected, i.e. what we are and what the work has made us, which is the writer’s triumph.’ The essay was reprinted in Ann Charters, ed., The Portable Beat Reader (New York: Viking, 1992), 352-53. [back]


Acker, Kathy. Bodies of Work: Essays (London: Serpent’s Tail, 1997).

Antin, David.  What It means to be Avant-garde (New York: New Directions, 1993).

Borges, Jorge Luis, Yates Donald A., and Irby, James E. Labyrinths: Selected Stories & Other Writings (New York: New Directions Publishing, 1964).

Burroughs William S., and Odier Daniel. The Job: Interviews with William S. Burroughs (New York: Grove/Atlantic, 1974).

Burroughs, William S., and Brion Gysin. The Third Mind (New York: Viking Press, 1978)

Federman, Raymond. Surfiction: Fiction Now … and Tomorrow (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1981).

Higgins, Dick. Horizons: The Poetics and Theory of the Intermedia (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983).

Michaux, Henri, trans. David Ball, Darkness Moves: An Henri Michaux Anthology, 1927-1984 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

Sukenick, Ronald. Down and In: Life in the Underground (New York:  Beech Tree Books, 1987).

Ulmer, Gregory. Electronic Monuments (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005).

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